Chemistry

Stomach ulcer

Stomach ulcer



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Area of ​​Expertise - medicine

The term gastric ulcer (gastric ulcer) is a localized defect in the lining of the stomach. The cause of an ulcer is an imbalance between aggressive factors such as stomach acid and the protective mechanisms of the stomach. The exact cause and development of the gastric ulcer has not yet been established with certainty. The biggest breakthrough, however, was the evidence that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is involved in the development of a gastric ulcer. Other causes that are far less common are prolonged use of pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs, severe physical stress, or other underlying illnesses.

See also: inflammation of the gastric mucosa

Learning units in which the term is dealt with

3.4 - Cimetidine - evolution of cimetidine45 min.

PharmacydrugThemed trip active ingredients

This learning unit describes the further development of the first histamine antagonists into the marketable active ingredient cimetidine. The biological activity, metabolism and side effects of cimetidine are also discussed.

3.3 - Cimetidine - histamine as a lead structure45 min.

PharmacydrugThemed trip active ingredients

This learning unit explains the development of the first histamine antagonists, based on the structure of histamine and the interactions between histamine and its receptor, towards the development of a new drug for stomach ulcers.

3.2 - Cimetidine - histamine, histamine receptors45 min.

PharmacydrugThemed trip active ingredients

This learning unit describes the relationships between histamine and histamine receptors and gastric acid secretion as the basis for the development of new ulcer therapeutics such as cimetidine.

3.5 - cimetidine - further development45 min.

PharmacydrugThemed trip active ingredients

After cimetidine, the first histamine antagonist, came onto the market as a drug against gastric ulcers, intensive work was carried out on the further development of drugs with even better properties and fewer side effects. This learning unit describes the targeted structural change of cimetidine to optimize the active ingredient and the new active ingredients that have emerged from it.

3.1 - 3.5 - cimetidine (total)100 min.

PharmacydrugThemed trip active ingredients

This learning unit describes the development of the ulcer therapeutic agent cimetidine. At the beginning, the basic information on ulcers (stomach and duodenal ulcers) is processed. In the following, the development of cimetidine starting from histamine as the first lead structure is discussed. It concludes with a discussion of optimizations based on the active ingredient cimetidine, which have led to the modern, highly effective ulcer therapeutics.

3.1 - Cimetidine - stomach ulcers40 min.

PharmacydrugThemed trip active ingredients

This learning unit deals with the spread, symptoms, morphology, consequences, history, diagnosis, treatment and causes of gastric ulcers.


Burnett Syndrome

That Burnett Syndrome, also as Milk-Alkali Syndrome This is a calcium metabolic disorder named after the American doctor Charles Hoyt Burnett as a result of an oversupply of easily absorbable alkalis (e.g. as bicarbonates) and calcium (e.g. via milk).

Burnett's syndrome manifests itself clinically with nausea and vomiting, dizziness and gait disorders (ataxia). An alkalosis occurs, an increase in the calcium content in the blood (hypercalcemia) without increased calcium excretion in the urine and without a decrease in the phosphate content in the blood. The increased calcium level leads to calcinosis with calcium salt deposits in the conjunctiva, possibly also in the cornea ("band keratitis" of the eyelid fissure), as well as in the renal tubules with the risk of renal insufficiency.