# White phosphorus

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## White phosphorus

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• Phosphorus (V) oxide

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Fig.
Tetrahedral ${\text{P.}}_{4}$ Molecule in white phosphor

• Phosphorus (V) oxide
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## Phosphorus - a volatile element

When we talk about phosphorus, it is not
about phosphates, which are found in the bones and teeth of the human body, for example, but about the element phosphorus, which exists in several forms, but which do not occur naturally in nature. Including the colorless or white modification, which is very toxic, flammable, corrosive and dangerous to the environment.

White phosphorus

. is a crystalline substance and consists of tetrahedra, each made up of four phosphorus atoms. The molecule has enormous tension, which is why white phosphorus is very reactive. It ignites at room temperature without any external influence and reacts with the oxygen from the air, releasing energy and with a flame temperature of
1300 & # 176C!

. is fat-soluble and is therefore very well absorbed through the skin. The body heat ignites the phosphorus and causes severe burns.

. is very toxic: 50 mg = 0.05 g is the lethal dose (depending on body weight).

. Glows in the dark: The gradual oxidation of white phosphorus in the air creates a reactive species that shows what is known as chemiluminescence.

. In the air it also reacts to form phosphines, which have the garlic-like odor that is characteristic of white phosphorus.

In the laboratory

. white phosphorus is stored in a storage vessel under water. There are working groups in universities that use white phosphorus in research. In the laboratory, for example, only a maximum of 100 g of very toxic substances may be used in laboratories [Technical Rule for Hazardous Substances (TRGS) 526]. For lecture purposes, white phosphorus can still be used in universities.

Properties and use

White phosphorus oxidizes to phosphorus (V) oxide, which is hygroscopic and forms mist with water from the air. This is why white phosphorus was used in smoke grenades and phosphorus incendiary bombs during World War II. Many of these incendiary bombs landed in the sea not only as a result of missed shots: Unfortunately, old ammunition was deliberately dumped in the sea without taking into account that the bombs gradually corrode in the salt water and release the phosphorus over time.

Another use of phosphorus is in the form of phosphides as mole poison, although killing moles is banned these days. The resulting phosphines are very poisonous and are distributed in the underground duct system of the mole.
At this point it should be pointed out that the Federal Nature Conservation Act only allows the mole or other animal species to be treated with suitable means to evict, for example with Ol. lavandulae (lavender oil), without killing him or destroying his habitat.

In the past, white phosphorus was also used as a rat poison in the form of Phosphorlatwerge. In addition, the "phosphor eggs according to Hager", known among pharmacists, were brought into circulation against crows.

Finally, white phosphorus in the form of Phosphorus solutus (1: 200) was also used as a remedy for rickets. Patients were given oral daily doses of a maximum of 0.6 g of phosphorus solution. This is why pharmacies had to store white phosphorus on their premises at the time. This procedure was still permitted at the time of the German Pharmacopoeia (DAB) 6. Even today it can still happen that white phosphorus can be found in the basement of pharmacies.

Nowadays, white phosphorus is still sold by the German Homeopathy Union Karlsruhe (DHU) in the form of a homeopathic medicine - albeit in a strong dilution. The globules are made from sucrose. During production, 10 g of globules are sprinkled with 0.1 g of the appropriate dilution. A dilution D3 contains a minimum of 0.09 and a maximum of 0.11% phosphorus. The exact instructions for the preparation are in the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. The drug created in this way is said to work against anxiety.

## Similar questions

which elements are related to phosphorus according to their position in the periodic table?

Is (the or that) phosphorus that is in cola toxic? So I mean the kind of phosphorus that is in cola

How does it come about chemically that phosphorus glows?

A well-known magic trick in which smoke is created by simply rubbing your fingers. The original trick used white phosphorus as far as I know, due to its pyrophoric (self-igniting) nature. Now you can buy paper for this trick on Amazon, which you should burn to get a yellow "Oumll" which you rub between your fingers. Do these actually contain red phosphorus and has anyone tried them?

In the series breaking bad & ouml, jessie pinkman opens an emergency torch and takes out red phosphorus i thought you had magnesium in there

Does anyone know how red phosphorus reacts under pressure? By pressure I mean to ignite it in a container or a pipe like with guns. Does it just explode or does it burn a lot afterwards? I only need 1-3 grams because the container is not big, but I have no idea how strong the reaction is.

why can phosphorus 6 be cohesive? Phosphorus sp3d is hybridized in phosphorus pentafluoride. But how can phosphorus even be sp3d2 hybridized (in phosphorus hexafluoride)?

Or does phosphorus absorb a fluoride ion in phosphorus hexafluoride, in which both electrons come from the fluoride and thus the two electrons of the fluoride bond via a free D orbital of the phosphorus?

## Chemicals labeled according to GHS

H250: Self-ignites in contact with air.

H300 + H330: Fatal if swallowed or inhaled.

H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.

H400 Very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Avoid the release of P273 into the environment.

P301 + P310: IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor / physician.

P303 + P361 + P353: IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Wash skin with water / shower.

P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if possible. Continue rinsing.

P320: Specific treatment urgently needed.

P422: Store contents in / under water.

P501: Dispose of contents / container to an approved waste disposal facility.

### Identification

InChI: InChI = 1S / P4 / c1-2-3 (1) 4 (1) 2

InChI Key: OBSZRRSYVTXPNB-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Canonical SMILES: P12P3P1P23

### Physical / chemical data

Density: 1.83 g / cm 3

Melting point: 44.2 ° C / 317.35 K / 111.56 ° F
Boiling point: 281 ° C / 554.15 K / 537.8 ° F

Flash point: 30 ° C / 303.15 K / 86 ° F

### Disposal instructions

Let it burn in small portions in a controlled manner.

### Forum code

CAS No .: 12185-10-3, EC No .: 231-768-7, UN No .: 1263

[img] https://www.chem-page.de/images/gefahrenymbole/ghs02_flamme_50.png [/ img] [img] https://www.chem-page.de/images/gefahrenymbole/ghs06_totenkopf_mit_gekreuzten_knochen_50.png [/ img] [img] https://www.chem-page.de/images/gefahrenymbole/ghs05_aetzffekt_50.png [/ img] [img] https://www.chem-page.de/images/gefahrenymbole/ghs09_umwelt_50.png [/ img]

H250: Self-ignites in contact with air.

H300 + H330: Fatal if swallowed or inhaled.

H314: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.

H400 Very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Avoid the release of P273 into the environment.

P301 + P310: IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor / physician.

P303 + P361 + P353: IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Wash skin with water / shower.

P305 + P351 + P338: IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if possible. Continue rinsing.

P320: Specific treatment urgently needed.

P422: Store contents in / under water.

P501: Dispose of contents / container to an approved waste disposal facility.

Details Manfred Seidl Published: October 12, 2013 Last updated: July 02, 2016 Created: October 12, 2013 Hits: 5159

## Energy level scheme

Phosphorus is one of the non-metallic elements. There are four modifications of phosphorus under normal conditions. White phosphorus is crystalline, waxy white to yellowish in color and has an unpleasant smell. The modification does not conduct electrical current. White phosphorus does not dissolve in water. It glows in the dark. This process is known as chemiluminescence. White phosphorus is a very dangerous substance because it ignites by itself at 50 ° C and then burns violently. If white phosphorus is heated for a long time (up to several weeks), violet phosphorus (Hittdorf phosphorus) can be formed, reddish crystals with a violet shimmer. Black phosphorus is crystalline and is also called metallic phosphorus because it is structured like a metal lattice and has an iron-like sheen. In addition, black phosphorus is electrically conductive. The crystal consists of six rings of phosphorus atoms that form double layers, so it is similar in structure to graphite. Black phosphorus is created from white phosphorus through strong heating and high pressure. Red phosphorus is not crystalline but amorphous, which means it has an irregular structure. The modification is in powder form and consists of innumerable, interlinked phosphorus atoms. The red phosphorus is also created from white phosphorus by heating to around 250 ° C. It is not as dangerous as white phosphorus, only ignites at 300 ° C, but can form highly explosive mixtures with potassium chlorate. Phosphorus reacts violently with atmospheric oxygen in several stages. In addition, phosphorus forms compounds with halogens. At 600 ° C the element reacts with water.

## Modifications and properties

Phosphorus occurs in four allotropic modifications as white, red, black and purple phosphorus. Each of these basic types forms different crystal structures. This leads to very large differences in physical properties and reactivity.

Since the other modifications are difficult to obtain directly, white phosphorus is always produced first and this is then converted into other modifications. These can be converted into one another by high pressure and high temperature. The black phosphorus is actually the most stable modification at room temperature, but the others are metastable due to the slow conversion rate. White phosphorus can be produced in the laboratory by heating red phosphorus in the absence of oxygen. Conversely, red phosphorus can also be produced by heating white phosphorus to around 360 ° C for several hours.

### Gaseous state

In the phosphorus vapor prevail below 1200 ° C P4-Tetrahedra as the smallest molecular units. The degree of dissociation is at 800 ° C

1 %. Between 1200 and 2000 ° C P predominate2-Molecules with a nitrogen-analogous valence electron structure, above 2000 ° C, these finally dissociate slowly to atomic phosphorus with increasing temperatures.

### White phosphorus

White phosphorus is the most volatile and reactive modification of phosphorus. It has a density of 1.82 g / cm 3, a melting point of 44.1 ° C, a boiling point of 280 ° C and is translucent and waxy. The white phosphorus is also contaminated as yellow phosphorus designated. The cubic white phosphorus is in phosphorus trichloride and carbon disulfide CS2 very easily soluble 100 g carbon disulphide dissolve more than 1 kg phosphorus. Phosphorus is sparingly soluble in carbon tetrachloride, benzene or ether. Since it is poorly soluble in water, white phosphorus is stored under water.

At -77 ° C the cubic shape (α-shape) changes into a hexagonal shape (β-shape). In any form (α-, β-, in solution) white phosphorus forms P.4-Tetrahedron with a bond angle of 60 °.

In a finely divided state, white phosphorus ignites by itself in the air; from around 50 ° C even compact pieces ignite and burn to form phosphorus (V) oxide. Therefore, white phosphorus must be kept underwater. Burning phosphorus must not be extinguished with water, as there is a risk that the phosphorus dust will be washed into fine cracks and will ignite again after the water has evaporated. Burning phosphorus is best extinguished with sand.

In the air, white phosphorus can show light green chemiluminescence. This arises from the gaseous P present in the environment due to the high vapor pressure of the white phosphorus4which is produced by gas phase oxidation via P4O6 to P4O10 reacted. Usually in a violent exothermic reaction, phosphorus combines with halogens, metals or sulfur. The resulting compounds are phosphorus sulfides, phosphorus (III) or phosphorus (V) compounds and phosphides. Under the action of strong alkalis at high temperatures, phosphorus disproportionates to phosphine and hypophosphite. Due to the high affinity of phosphorus for oxygen, which is caused by the strong phosphorus-oxygen bond, white phosphorus has a strong reducing effect. When heated with white phosphorus, sulfuric acid is reduced to sulfur dioxide.

The phosphorus pentoxide that is formed when phosphorus is burned is highly hygroscopic and, together with the moisture in the air, forms a thick mist of phosphoric acid. White phosphorus is therefore used in smoke grenades.

#### Toxicity

White phosphorus is highly toxic; even 50 mg are fatal to humans. Death only occurs after five to ten days. White phosphorus is also only slowly excreted.

The toxicity of white phosphorus is mainly attributed to its high reducing power, which disrupts intracellular oxidative metabolic processes such as protein and carbohydrate synthesis. This mainly concerns enzymatically controlled metabolic processes in the liver. The highly poisonous phosphines formed by reaction with water, which are strong metabolic poisons and have a special affinity for the central nervous system, represent a further danger [4].

### Black phosphorus

The most stable modification at room temperature exists in one amorphous and three crystalline forms. Due to its polymeric form, black phosphorus is insoluble, almost non-flammable, very inert and has a density of 2.69 g / cm 3. Therefore, like red phosphorus, black phosphorus is non-toxic. The crystal lattice on which the black phosphorus is based consists of corrugated double layers in which the phosphorus atoms are pyramidal connected to three other phosphorus atoms in the vicinity at a bond angle of 100 °. In this configuration, phosphorus has semiconducting properties. In humid air, black phosphorus oxidizes a little faster than red phosphorus, but is covered with a colorless, viscous liquid skin made of phosphoric acids, so that further oxygen access is prevented and inflammation is made more difficult.

Black phosphorus is created under high pressure from white or red phosphorus and is very different from the above in terms of its color.

### Red phosphorus

A number of amorphous and crystalline forms with density variations between 2.0 and 2.4 g / cm 3 and melting points between 585 ° C and 610 ° C are under the name red phosphorus summarized. Red phosphorus is commonly amorphous, but can be converted into monoclinic by recrystallization from molten lead Hittorf's (violet) phosphorus transfer, which forms a three-dimensionally crosslinked polymeric form.

Red phosphorus is obtained by heating white phosphorus to around 260 ° C for several hours in the absence of air. A slow conversion also happens when exposed to light. Iodine catalyzes the conversion of white to red phosphorus

The differences between the crystalline parts in red phosphorus determine the different forms of the same. The grain size, the type of lattice, impurities and the various saturations of the edge groups with halogens, oxygen and hydroxyl groups have an influence here.

Red phosphorus is inert. In terms of reactivity, purple phosphorus is more like black phosphorus, while the Schenck's phosphorus shows much more reactive than "normal" red phosphorus.

Red phosphorus is non-toxic; its first description is attributed to Anton Schrötter von Kristelli.

### Bright red phosphorus

The light red or also Schencksche Phosphorus (Rudolf Schenck, 1902) is produced by boiling white phosphorus in phosphorus tribromide (PBr3). The product is a mixed compound of phosphorus with 10 to 30% bromine, the density of which is 1.88 g / cm 3.

### Violet / Hittorf's phosphorus

Purple phosphorus is formed when white phosphorus is heated to approx. 550 ° C for one to two weeks. He was discovered by Johann Wilhelm Hittorf. It is a non-conductive polymer that is insoluble in CS2 is. The structure elucidation succeeded in the late 1960s at the University of Stuttgart by Herbert Thurn. The purple phosphorus is also non-toxic.

### Phosphorus nanorods

In August 2004, German researchers succeeded in isolating and structurally characterizing two further modifications of the multi-faceted element: phosphorus nanorods. In these two modifications, the phosphorus atoms are in the form of chain molecules (polymers). The discoverers of the new modifications are Arno Pfitzner from the University of Regensburg and Hellmut Eckert from the Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster. [5] The red-brown fibers, which differ significantly from the red phosphorus modification, are stable in the dry state for weeks in the air. Under the electron microscope, this red-brown phosphorus form showed up as long, parallel nanorods with cross-sections of approximately 0.34 nm (nanometers) and 0.47 nm, respectively.

## What is phosphate

Phosphate is an anion made up of phosphorus (P) and oxygen (O) atoms. That chemical formula Phosphate is reported as PO4 3-. The molecular geometry of phosphate is tetrahedral. The phosphorus atom is centered by four oxygen atoms. The phosphate anion carries three negative charges. When these charges are replaced by protons (H +) the molecule is called & # 252l Phosphoric acid.

Figure 2: Phosphate

Many phosphate compounds are not soluble in water. However, phosphates of alkali metals are water-soluble due to the high reactivity of the metal atom. However, aqueous phosphates can be found in three main forms as PO4 3- HPO4 2- and H2PO4 – .

Phosphates are mainly found as inorganic phosphates. These are inorganic molecules containing phosphate. Phosphates are the naturally occurring form of the phosphorus element. These phosphates are found as rocks or ores.

Phosphates are widely used to support plant growth. Therefore, phosphates are used as fertilizers. These fertilizers are referred to as "phosphate fertilizers". Phosphates are sometimes used in the manufacture of specialty glasses.

## Forensic chemistry and chemistry class

Forensics is divided into various work areas that serve to investigate criminal activities. Here, scientific methods are mainly used. Forensic chemistry is one of the six areas. With new experiments and concepts relevant to schools, this forms the focus of this issue of CHEMKON. In addition, forensic psychology and psychiatry, forensic ballistics, forensic medicine, digital forensics (IT forensics) and forensic biology are the other sub-areas, whereby the individual areas often overlap in practice.

The forensic effort that is used to solve crimes today is enormous. But that was not always so. In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, confessions were often obtained through so-called embarrassing questioning. Behind it was nothing other than torture, the term embarrassing is derived from pain (Latin 'poena' = atonement, penance, punishment, torment).

In the course of the 18th century the use of torture was increasingly abandoned and the search for evidence to convict suspects began. In one of the earliest documented cases of ballistic evidence-based murder conviction, saddler John Toms was found guilty in 1784 of shooting carpenter Edward Culshaw in Ditton, Lancashire. This was on a road that led to Liverpool when Toms shot him in the head during a robbery. At that time the pistols were still muzzleloaders, gunpowder and projectile had to be z. B. be held back by a ball of paper from falling out. Toms used a torn piece of a ballad printed on paper that he had previously bought. When the body was examined, the scrap of paper was found. It exactly matched the paper that Toms was still carrying in his pocket.

Poisonous murders with arsenic (arsenic (III) oxide, As2O3) were widespread at the time, as there was a long lack of chemical detection possibilities - until the English chemist James Marsh developed the Marsh sample named after him in 1836. Even today, this sensitive detection, in which arsenic (III) oxide is converted into arsine and its decomposition in the heat, an arsenic level z. B. forms on a porcelain surface, used in forensic medicine.

White phosphorus, which was easily available as an effective rat poison at the time, was misused and, with a high degree of probability, was also the cause of numerous, unexplained deaths. The famous chemist Eilhard Mitscherlich of the Berlin Friedrich Wilhelms University (today: Humboldt University) was investigating such a case at the instigation of the Royal Prussian Medicinal College entrusted in 1854. Mitscherlich believed that phosphorus in the watery, pulpy stomach contents can only be oxidized very slowly. His idea was to heat the contents of the stomach to a boil. He hoped to generate enough phosphorus fumes, which would betray their existence by a luminous phenomenon. He was correct in his guess. Nevertheless, countless other murders with phosphorus followed in the 19th and 20th centuries.

The fascination that emanates from such studies is now being exploited by producers of television series. A well-known example is the popular television series CSI. The abbreviation stands for Crime Scene Investigation and denotes the US American and Canadian forensic investigation. Juraj Lipscher / ETH Zurich and Hans-Joachim Bader / Goethe University Frankfurt recognized the motivating potential of forensic chemistry for school lessons in German-language chemistry didactics. Many followed their example and enriched the chemistry didactic literature with numerous suggestions for experimentation and learning concepts. So was z. E.g. in the Institute for Chemistry of the Karlsruhe University of Education in cooperation with the Karlsruhe Police, the learning environment 'Kriminallabor PH Karlsruhe' developed as part of the joint project MINT 2 KA (www.mint2ka.de) for the teaching-learning laboratory 'makeScience!' carried out and evaluated. The pupils are supposed to investigate a fictitious murder case with the help of working methods of physical and chemical forensic technology in order to finally be able to convict the perpetrator on the basis of the secured traces and evidence. The concept can be read in the MNU-Journal (issue 1/2020).

In this issue of CHEMKON, four articles are devoted to forensic chemistry. You will learn, among other things, how traces of blood can be detected with highlighters and bath salts. In addition, a forensic riddle is solved, namely the cause of the rapid fading of fingerprints made visible with a Berliner Braun solution. I hope you enjoy reading this booklet!

Matthias Ducci is professor of chemistry and its didactics at the Karlsruhe University of Education. He also heads the GDCh training center for chemistry teachers there. He is also a member of the editor-in-chief of this magazine.

## White phosphorus - chemistry and physics

A number of amorphous and crystalline forms with density variations between 2.0 and 2.4 g / cm 3 and melting points between 585 ° C and 610 ° C are called red phosphorus summarized. Generally, red phosphorus is amorphous, but can be converted into monoclinic by recrystallization from molten lead Hittorf's (violet) phosphorus Transfer, which forms a three-dimensional cross-linked polymeric shape.

Red phosphorus is obtained by heating white phosphorus for several hours to about 260 ° C in the absence of air. A slow conversion also happens when exposed to light. Iodine catalyzes the conversion of white to red phosphorus

The differences between the crystalline parts in red phosphorus determine the different forms of the same. The grain size, the type of lattice, impurities and the various fillings of the edge groups with halogens, oxygen and hydroxyl groups have an influence here.

Red phosphorus is inert. In terms of reactivity, the violet phosphor is more like the black phosphor, while the Schenck's phosphorus shows much more reactive than "normal" red phosphorus.

Red phosphorus is non-toxic, its first description is attributed to Anton Schr & oumltter von Kristelli.

## Modifications

Modifications are different manifestations of one and the same substance. Modifications of an element consist of the same atoms, but have different physical and z. Some also have chemical properties.
There are several modifications of elemental phosphorus, e.g. B. white, red, purple or black phosphorus. The individual modifications differ in their structures and thus also in their properties.

Phosphorus is highly flammable and therefore a component in the heads of matches.

Phosphorus atoms do not form multiple bonds with one another. In order to obtain an electron octet, three non-polar atomic bonds to other phosphorus atoms and a lone pair of electrons are formed in the white modification. This creates tetrahedral P 4 molecules, which, in contrast to other tetrahedral structures (carbon in the diamond lattice), are high in energy (Fig. 2). Because of this structure, white phosphorus is extremely reactive and self-ignites in air. To prevent it from reacting with the oxygen in the air, white phosphorus must be stored in the absence of air (e.g. under water).

White phosphorus tetrahedral structure

White phosphorus is crystalline, waxy at room temperature and does not dissolve in water. It forms very toxic fumes and glows in the dark. The glow of white phosphorus in the dark is due to the fact that traces of it evaporate in air and slowly oxidise to phosphorus (V) oxide. During this reaction, energy is released, some of which is given off as light. This phenomenon is known as phosphorescence.
Red, black, and purple phosphorus can be made from the white modification. They form more complicated but more stable structures (Fig. 3).

## Show experiments

Calcium phosphate and magnesium are heated in a test tube until they glow. It releases white phosphorus.

### Chemicals used

3 g Calcium phosphate, Approx3(PO4)2 - 310.18 g / mol

tri-calcium orthophosphate, tert-calcium phosphate, tri-calcium orthophosphate, tert-calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate

CAS No .: 7758-87-4 - EC No .: 231-840-8

Merck, 102143, SDS of March 16, 2015

0.5 g Magnesium (powder, <0.1 mm), Mg - 24.31 g / mol

CAS No .: 7439-95-4 - EC No .: 231-104-6

Pyr. Sol. 1, Water-react. 1, WGK nwg

H250 Self-ignites in contact with air. H260 In contact with water releases flammable gases which can ignite spontaneously. P210 Keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. Do not smoke. P280 Wear protective gloves / protective clothing / eye protection / face protection. P302 + P335 + P334 IF ON SKIN: Brush off loose particles from skin. Immerse in cold water or put on a wet bandage. P370 + P378 In case of fire: Use extinguishing powder or dry sand to extinguish. P231 Handle and store contents under inert gas.

Sigma-Aldrich, GF83190663, SDB from October 13, 2013

### Product

Phosphorus (white), P - 30.97 g / mol

Tricyclo [1.1.0. 2,4] tetraphosphane (IUPAC), phosphorus yellow, tetraphosphorus, phosphorus mirabilis

CAS No .: 12185-10-3 - EC No .: 231-768-7

Pyr. Sol. 1, Acute Tox. 1 (oral), Acute Tox. 2 (inhalation), Skin Corr. 1A, Aquatic Acute 1, WGK 3

H250 Self-ignites in contact with air. H300 + H330 Fatal if swallowed or inhaled. H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. H400 Very toxic to aquatic organisms. Avoid the release of P273 into the environment. P280 Wear protective gloves / protective clothing / eye protection / face protection. P284 In case of insufficient ventilation, wear respiratory protection. P301 + P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER / doctor. P304 + P340 + P310 IF INHALED: Remove the person to fresh air and ensure that they can breathe freely. Call a POISON CENTER / doctor immediately. P305 + P351 + P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove any existing contact lenses if possible. Continue rinsing. P231 Handle and store contents under inert gas / nitrogen / water. P501 Dispose of contents / container to an approved waste disposal facility.

Kapci Coatings, 755, SDS from August 26, 2010

### Devices used, experimental set-up

Test tube, porcelain dish, spatula, stand, clamp, sleeve, glass floss, Bunsen burner, trigger, tweezers or crucible tongs, iron wire

### Test execution

3 g calcium phosphate and 0.5 g magnesium powder are mixed together in a porcelain dish. The mixture is transferred to a test tube with a spatula. The test tube is attached at an angle to a stand with a clamp and sleeve and closed with a wad of glass wad. Under the fume cupboard in a darkened room, a Bunsen burner is used to heat the mixture until the mixture glows. The flame must be removed immediately. Luminous phosphorus vapors rise. The glass floss is removed with tweezers or crucible tongs and the glass wall is scratched with an iron wire. It can be observed that unburned phosphorus lights up again and again.

### Reaction equation

Reaktion von weißem Phosphor mit Sauerstoff:

Das Calciumphosphat wird durch Magnesium zu Phosphor (weiß) reduziert. Weißer Phosphor reagiert mit vorhandenem Sauerstoff zu Diphosphorpentoxid, P4O10, wobei eine Leuchterscheinung auftritt.