Chemistry

Exceptions to the labeling requirement

Exceptions to the labeling requirement



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Unpackaged food and food in very small packaging are exempt from the labeling requirement. Likewise 22 ingredients for which it is assumed that the advanced processing has largely destroyed the allergenic potential, e.g. in spirits made from grain, glucose syrup made from wheat, vitamin E made from soy.

If the proportion of the ingredient is below 2%, the listing of the ingredient may be omitted for five food groups (provided it is not one of the twelve main allergens):

  1. Herbs, spices and mixtures thereof
  2. Jams, marmalades and similar products
  3. Cocoa and chocolate products
  4. Fruit juices, fruit nectars
  5. Iodized salt

The warning of possible production-related contamination is not yet regulated by law (e.g. via the definition of threshold values). So far, manufacturers have protected themselves with voluntary notices, including the warning: "May contain traces of nuts."


Classification, packaging, labeling, classification data

Everyone who manufactures, imports or otherwise sells dangerous products in Austria has to find out about the dangerous properties of these products. In accordance with this information, entrepreneurs are obliged to classify, package and label the products they have brought onto the market according to their dangerous properties. The purpose of these obligations is that the users of such products are aware of the dangers posed by these products. You are also obliged to provide the chemical inspectors of the federal states with the necessary data and information regarding compliance with these regulations.


Inorganic chemistry or carbon-free compounds

The second major sub-area in chemistry is inorganic chemistry, also known as AC or inorganic. With a few exceptions for a few carbon compounds, organic chemistry deals with carbon-free compounds.

There is a border area between inorganic and organic chemistry. These include organ metal compounds, with organic compounds being bound to an atom made of metal.

The inorganic substances include, for example

  • Salts
  • and alloys,
  • Metals,
  • Semi-metals,
  • as well as clusters and
  • Complexes.

The difference to organic molecules is that inorganic molecules are small and usually consist of only a few atoms.

Many equilibrium actions occur in inorganic chemistry, which are also important. These include the acid-base reaction or the reduction-oxidation reaction, which is known for short as the redox reaction.


The German Explosives Act is divided into the following areas:

Law on Explosive Substances (SprengG)

The SprengG essentially regulates the handling, traffic and import of explosive substances. The SprengG applies to both the commercial sector (e.g. manufacturers, fireworkers, quarries) and the non-commercial sector (e.g. firecrackers, reloaders). In principle, explosive substances may only be used in Germany if they have been approved beforehand. The approval process is described below. In principle, explosive substances may only be handed over to companies or persons who have a permit. Exceptions to the permit requirement are regulated in the 1st Ordinance to the Explosives Act. The following types of permits are anchored in the SprengG:

Permission according to § 7 SprengG for the handling, traffic and import of / with explosive substances in the commercial area

This permit is required by companies that want to handle explosive substances. The handling within the meaning of the SprengG includes the manufacture, processing, processing, use, storage, destruction, transfer and the relinquishment, receipt and transport of these substances within the operating site. Manufacturers of explosive substances therefore need such a permit, as do companies that want to buy and use such substances. Typical license holders are:

  • Manufacturers of commercial and military explosives and ammunition
  • Fireworks companies: Burning off large fireworks
  • Quarries: execution of extraction blasting
  • Demolition companies: Demolition of buildings by means of blasting
  • Special effects companies that use explosive substances to create special effects in the film and television sectors
  • Development and production of safety devices in vehicles such as airbags

Permission according to § 27 SprengG for the handling and traffic with explosive substances in the non-commercial area

Dealing with explosive substances in the private sector is only allowed to people who have a permit according to § 27 SprengG. Typical examples for private dealings are:

The permit authorizes the acquisition, transport, use and storage of the explosive substances. Importing and any processing of the fabrics is not permitted. The manufacture of explosive substances is also prohibited.

Certificate of competence according to § 20 SprengG for employees who deal with explosive substances

Employees who deal with explosive substances require a certificate of competence for their work. The following requirements are necessary to obtain a certificate of competence:

  • Minimum age 21 years
  • Reliability. The authorities determine the reliability by querying the federal central register, the central public prosecutor's procedural register and the police.
  • Personal suitability (no alcohol or drug addiction, no danger to others or oneself)
  • Expertise. The holder of a certificate of competence must have successfully attended a state or state-recognized specialist course. There are specific courses that have to be completed for the various areas of work. For example, someone who wants to demolish buildings using blasting must successfully complete the basic course “General blasting work” and the special course “Blasting structures and parts of structures”. In some cases, proof of regularly attended repeat courses must be provided.

The certificate of competence is valid nationwide and may not be restricted to certain companies because of the constitutionally protected occupational freedom. The explosives authority in whose district the habitual residence (usually the main residence) takes place is responsible for the license holder.

Approval according to § 17 for the storage of explosive substances

Basically, a permit according to § 17 SprengG is necessary for the storage of explosive substances. The 2nd Ordinance to the Explosives Act contains exceptions which, depending on the type and quantity of the substances, constitute the statutory exemption from the licensing requirement. The exceptions to the 2nd Explosive Ordinance are shown in Annexes 6 and 6a to the 2nd Explosive Ordinance.

If the quantities to be stored exceed the maximum quantities in the tables in Annexes 6 and 6a, a permit in accordance with § 17 SprengG is required;

The approval according to § 17 SprengG includes other official decisions relating to the warehouse - in particular those relating to building law.

The approval requirement extends to

Explosive substances according to § 1 Paragraph 1 and Paragraph 3 of the Explosive Act, explosive substances intended for detonation that are not explosive according to Annex 1 of the SprengG, ignition devices and pyrotechnic objects, other objects that contain explosive substances in accordance with § 1 Paragraph 1 or Paragraph 3 Explosives Act or explosive substances within the meaning of Section 1, Paragraph 2, No. 1 of the Explosives Act.

not The licensing requirement is subject to explosive substances which are excluded from the scope of application under the requirements of Section 1 (2) No. 2 to 5 of the 2nd SprengV or which are in small quantities according to § 6 of the 2nd SprengV in conjunction with number 4 of the appendix to 2. SprengV are kept.

The approval according to § 17 SprengG is not a personnel permit, but purely plant-related. It will therefore only be denied if the warehouse and its operation do not meet the requirements for the location, construction and facility in accordance with Section 17 (2) of the SprengG. The subject of the audit is the construction, operation and any significant change in the nature or operation of a warehouse (Section 17 (1) sentence 1 SprengG).

The construction includes the construction and establishment of a camp. The operation of a warehouse encompasses all operations including the maintenance of the warehouse. The change to a warehouse is to be regarded as significant if the change gives rise to concerns that additional or other dangers to life, health or property of employees or third parties will be brought about. (see Section 17 (6) of the SprengG). If the change is not essential, approval in accordance with building regulations cannot be ruled out.

The reasons for refusal according to Section 17, Paragraph 2 of the Explosives Act are final. If there are no grounds for refusal, the applicant has a legal right to be granted the approval. The reason for refusal according to Section 17 (2) No. 1 SprengG obliges the competent authority to check whether precautions have been taken against dangers to life, health and property of employees or third parties prescribed in the appendix to the 2nd SprengV and otherwise result from the generally recognized safety rules. These can be found in particular in the explosives storage guidelines, which are drawn up by the Federal Minister for Labor and Social Affairs and published in the Federal Worksheet, special supplement for occupational health and safety.

The other public law regulations within the meaning of Section 17 (2) No. 2 SprengG include, in particular, regulations on building law and immission control law. In addition, the authority has to take occupational health and safety issues into account in the approval process.

Upon written request, the competent authority can permit exceptions to the provisions of the appendix to the 2nd Explosive Ordinance under the requirements of Section 3 (1) of the 2nd Explosive Ordinance. These prerequisites are met for the storage of pyrotechnic objects in sales rooms of commercial buildings within the meaning of the department and commercial building regulations of the federal states, if the requirements specified in the annex are met.

The approval can be restricted in terms of content, e.g. & # 160B. to certain types and quantities of explosive substances; it can also be issued under certain conditions and linked to conditions (Section 17 (3) SprengG).

Insofar as components or systems, in particular cabinet bearings, are approved according to their design, the inspection by the authority is limited to the other components as well as the location, the type of installation and the operation of the warehouse. Regarding the type approval procedure, reference is made to Section 5 of the 2nd SprengV.

First Ordinance on the Explosives Act (1. SprengV)

Approval of explosive substances, exemptions from the Explosives Act, distribution and surrender, specialist knowledge and examination procedures, last amended by Art. 3 of the ordinance of November 26, 2010 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1643, 1691).

  • Fireworks of categories I, II, III, T1 and T2 that are sold in Germany must be approved by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing. Fireworks of category IV (large fireworks), on the other hand, require a newly introduced quality assurance procedure by an appropriately certified body.

Fireworks of category II (New Year's Eve fireworks) may only be burned off on New Year's Eve or New Year's Eve and then only by persons of legal age, except for permit holders according to §§ 7, 20 or 27 SprengG. There is a ban on selling these items outside of the times listed in Section 22 (1) of the 1st Explosive Ordinance.

In individual cases, exceptions to the sales and burn-off times by the responsible municipal administration (local police authority / public order office) are possible on request.

Second Ordinance to the Explosives Act (2. SprengV)

Storage of explosive substances, last amended by Art. 2 of the Ordinance of November 26, 2010 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1643, 1677).


Exemptions

Under certain circumstances, chargeable exemptions for entering the environmental zone can be granted. The principle "retrofitting before exception" applies.

Applications for special permits can be submitted to the Mainz City Administration, Traffic Authority, Citadel, Building B, 55131 Mainz (see "Who issues the special permit?") You can find the application form under "Downloads" at the bottom of the page. (An informal application is also possible!)

Office hours: Monday to Friday from 8.30 a.m. to 12 p.m.

In order to save costs and time, special permits issued are mutually recognized by the cities of Mainz, Wiesbaden, Frankfurt am Main and Offenbach.


The exceptions: Not subject to labeling

Genetic engineering applications in upstream processing stages, such as animal feed, are particularly exempt from the labeling requirement. As a rule, what remains unmarked with help Genetically modified microorganisms are produced as well as enzymes and other auxiliary substances.

No marking: Dairy products from cows fed from GM crops.

No labeling: food that with the help of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were produced.

Animal products such as meat, sausage, eggs, milk, if they come from animals that have received feed from genetically modified plants.

It has no measurable influence on the quality of a food, whether the animals were fed with feed from conventional or GM plants.

For feed itself, however, the same labeling regulations apply as for food: It must be declared on the packaging or in the accompanying documents if a feed contains components from genetically modified plants or microorganisms.

No marking: Buns with additives such as cysteine ​​(E920), which are made with the help of GM microorganisms

No labeling: additives, flavors and vitamins that with help genetically modified microorganisms are produced.

The microorganisms used are understood as & # 8222biological machines & # 8220 that convert nutrients into the desired substances. The prerequisite for the exemption from the labeling requirement is that there are no longer any microorganisms or their components in the food or the additive.

The respective substance is chemically the same, regardless of whether it was produced chemically-synthetically, biotechnologically or with GM microorganisms.

Examples of additives that can be produced with the help of GM microorganisms are

  • Sweetener aspartame (riboflavin)
  • Flavor enhancer glutamate, which, as an additive in baking mixes, ensures the loose volume of bread rolls

No marking: GMO admixtures up to 0.9 percent

No labeling: minor GMO admixtures & # 8230.

& # 8230 in plant-based agricultural raw materials up to a threshold value of 0.9 percent (based on the respective ingredient) remain label-free,

  • if the manufacturer or importer of the product in question can credibly demonstrate that the GMO additions are incidental, technically unavoidable
  • and if the GMOs present in traces are authorized in the EU and thus classified as safe.

No marking: Sweets with glucose syrup obtained using genetically engineered enzymes.

No labeling: Genetic engineering applications for substances that do not have to be declared on the list of ingredients in food.

  • Enzymesthat are produced with the help of GM microorganisms, for example: chymosin (rennet) in cheese production, amylases that break down starch in bread or baking mixes, amylases and other enzymes that are used in the production of glucose syrup from starch, pectinases that break down cell walls in Fruit juices and wine
  • Nutrients for microorganisms. In the production of certain foods or additives, microorganisms are used that grow on nutrient media (substrates). These culture media can be obtained from GMOs.
  • Carriers. Various vitamins, flavors or additives are applied to carrier substances in order to be able to dose and handle them better. Although these carriers are added to food, they are not considered an ingredient and therefore do not need to be labeled. Carriers can be made from GMO raw materials.

No labeling: special case of pollen from GM plants in honey

Pollen is introduced into the beehive by the bees rather casually. The proportion of pollen in honey is very low and is around 0.05 to a maximum of 0.5 percent. Pollen is therefore a "natural component" in honey, not a food ingredient. Pollen from GM plants would only result in the honey being labeled if the proportion of pollen in relation to the honey exceeded the 0.9 percent threshold - which is almost impossible.


Octet expansion of the octet rule

In addition to the octet rule, there is also an octet extension. This extension applies to molecules that exceed the electron octet, i.e. have more than eight electrons. However, since these molecules still produce stable connections, they are considered to be octet extensions.

The corresponding molecules include phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and iodine heptafluoride (IF7). They are referred to as multi-center bonds or partially ionic formulations.

In addition, there are molecules for which you can set up a formula according to the octet rule, but which have more than four covalent lines for an atom. They include sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide. However, these are not regarded as exceptions.


This administrative regulation regulates the content, scope and exceptions to the legitimation and identification obligation of the police officers of the state of Brandenburg. It does not apply to police officers of the federal government or other countries who are deployed on the basis of & sect 77 of the Brandenburg Police Act in the state of Brandenburg.

In the context of police work, the law enforcement officers have to present themselves to the persons concerned with their official title, name and the department involved. Those affected are to be informed of the reason for the measure, provided there are no grounds for exclusion to the contrary. The additional identification requirement only arises if those affected by the measure expressly request it. They are only affected if the police measure is directed against them.


Tasks of the school conference

The school conference is the highest decision-making body of the school within the scope of its tasks. It is re-elected every school year and serves to encourage cooperation between students, parents and teachers. The school principals (RS and GY) implement the decisions of the school conference. Sections 65 and 66 of the School Act of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Archbishopric School Act (Sections 29, 30 and 31) define the tasks and composition of the school conference.

The respective representatives are elected by the teachers' conference, the school council and the student council, with the chairman of the school council and the student representative always being members of the school conference. The chairperson of the school conference is always the headmaster or the deputy headmaster appointed by him. If there is a tie in a vote, the vote of the school conference chairman decides.

The main task of the school conference is to develop and coordinate the educational work of the school. This is done by advising and deciding on the following points:

  • School program,
  • Recommendations on quality development and assurance measures,
  • Principles for the timing of homework and written performance reviews,
  • Principles for the establishment and scope of additional courses, working groups and care offers,
  • Distribution of lessons over five or six days, introduction of all-day lessons / the long day, break regulations and the start of lessons,
  • Organization of the school entry phase,
  • Recommendation for testing and introduction of new forms of teaching,
  • Recommendations to the teachers' conference on statements on work and social behavior in certificates within the framework of the guidelines of the school authority,
  • Framework planning of school events outside of class,
  • Principles of student exchanges and school partnerships,
  • Organizational design of counseling for parents or students by teachers in the school,
  • Principles for dealing with general educational difficulties,
  • Regulation for the arrangement of school social hours,
  • Introduction of dispute settlement programs,
  • Determination of the learning materials that are to be procured within the framework of the parents' own contribution as well as objections from other bodies involved in relation to the learning materials,
  • Principles for the distribution of school budget funds,
  • Principles for advertising at the respective school as well as the type and scope of sponsorship,
  • Principles for the cooperation of parents and other persons in the classroom and outside of the classroom,
  • Cooperation in the field of education with other Catholic Free Schools,
  • Extra-curricular cooperation with other schools, associations, organizations and institutions that deal with issues relating to career counseling, vocational training and internships,
  • Cooperation with parishes and other church institutions,
  • Cooperation with the providers of youth welfare and health care, the school psychology service, education and addiction counseling centers and the traffic watch,
  • Exceptions to alcohol and smoking bans,
  • Determination of the movable vacation days,
  • Issuing school and house rules (to be reported to the school authority),
  • Supplementary procedural and election regulations for the participation bodies (cf. § 40 SchulG-EBK)
  • Recommendations for the establishment and composition of specialist conferences, specialist conference groups and special specialist conferences,
  • Establishment of partial conferences, the trust committee or appointment of a shop steward and
  • Deviations from the timetable.

With this multitude of points, the range of tasks of the school conference becomes clear.

The school conference of RS and GY can be found in the overview & gt & gt here!


The evolution of chemistry

Chemistry has a reputation for being accessible only to a few initiated. Chemical names and formulas in particular have an impenetrable meaning to most people. But the nomenclature of chemistry was at the beginning of its development into a modern science.

It is not Lavoisier alone who develops language

It is widely believed that Antoine de Lavoisier was instrumental in the birth of modern chemistry in 1787 when he removed an abundance of names from alchemy and developed a logical nomenclature for chemistry.

However, it was not Lavoisier alone who initiated the reform of the language. Rather, the lawyer and chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau launched the project. Such an article in the latest issue of & quotNature & quot. Because he developed the first basic principles of nomenclature.

In his opinion, the nomenclature should reveal the "nature of things". Simple substances should also be given simple names referring to their most characteristic properties. Compound names should express the composition of the individual chemical building blocks. And Greek etymology should be given preference over Latin.

General need for systematisation

This initiative to reform chemical terminology preceded the development of modern chemistry. The chemists of the 18th century worked with new and improved analytical methods that allowed them to differentiate between the individual substances.

They complained frequently that either one name referred to several substances, or that different ones

Names denoted a single substance. In addition, names were needed for newly discovered substances: such as cobalt and vanadium, which were named after characters from Nordic mythology.

But it wasn't just the increasing number of substances that gave rise to a new nomenclature. There was a general call for systematization in the sciences. And in botany, Carl von Line had already achieved quite a bit.

The & quot Phlogiston & quot and his opponents

Guyton began his language reforms in 1782. In January 1787 he submitted his results to the Paris Academy of Sciences.

There was heated argument about the existence of the "phlogiston". The phlogiston theory was a model to explain combustion. However, in a different way than Lavoisier described this phenomenon. Most chemists of the time assumed the existence of phlogiston, including Guyton.

Oxygen inspires a new nomenclature

Guyton, however, was convinced of Lavoisier's theory and revised his work with the help of Lavoisier, Claude Berthollet and Antoine Fourcroy. Four months later the work was republished, but without any reference to phlogiston.

Instead there was the term & quot Oxyg ne & quot (oxygen) - from the Greek for & quot; controlling principle & quot ;. This comes from Lavoisier's now revised belief that all acids contain oxygen.

Stimulus for the development of modern chemistry

Despite the many objections of contemporary chemists, the new language, which Lavoisier said followed a & quot; natural logic & quot ;, was adopted throughout Europe over the next two decades. But adoption of the French nomenclature did not automatically mean that Lavoisier's theories of chemistry were accepted. The reform met a long-felt need within the chemical guild, and it came at a time when the modern science of chemistry was beginning to develop.

Controversy over new terminology

But many pharmacists, dyers and glassmakers were not happy with the new technical language, in which their well-tried terms for colors, smells and medicinal properties were replaced by the new compounds.

The new terminology neglected the senses, banned any reference to geographical origins and any reference to the discoverer of the substances. It imposed an analytical and quantitative logic on everything.

However, this naming logic has proven to be useful over time. However, the systematic principles were not always strictly adhered to in the 19th century. For example, & quot Oxyg ne & quot should have been renamed when Humphry Davy realized that it wasn't in many acids.

The exceptions to the rule

But habit is stronger than the imperative of systematization. Color and smell were rehabilitated after the discovery of chlorine, iodine and bromine, which were named after the Greek for "yellow-green", "violet" and "stink".

In the realm of organic chemistry, the medicinal properties gave the name: Morphine, for example, is named after Morpheus, the god of dreams. The geographical origin can be found in the benzene, because the tree Styrax benzoin is native to Java and Sumatra.

Nationalisms also penetrated chemical nomenclature: think of scandium, germanium and polonium.

Today: the imperative of standardization

The tension between the ideal of a general, systematic language and the constraints of everyday use remains a key characteristic of chemical nomenclature in the 20th century.

Reforming a technical language is no longer the revolutionary undertaking of four ambitious chemists, carried out in four months. Today it is the responsibility of a permanent commission, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

New rules are made from time to time. But it is so difficult to stick to the systematic naming for more complex chemical compounds that some reformers have given up the ambition to surrender the molecular world to systematization.

The ideal of a rational language as a mirror of nature had to give way to the imperative of standardization. Time may judge whether or not this more humble attitude enhances the general understanding of chemistry.


Video: . FDA Drug Labeling Requirements (August 2022).